Definitions for terms used to describe shipment types and special services are found below:
Bulkhead – A wall or divider installed between freight in a trailer to keep the goods safely separated during transit.
Cubic Feet – A measurement determined by multiplying the greatest dimensions of length, width and height of space a shipment effectively occupies in inches and dividing the total by 1,728 cubic inches.
Deadhead – A trailer that is empty during travel. Deadhead is commonly used when describing a truck or trailer’s journey back to its point of origin.
Dock – Also referred to as a loading dock, it is an area where a carrier receives and dispatches shipments.
Drayage – The process of transporting goods over a short distance, most often used to describe local shipping needs.
Dunnage – Materials such as plastic, wood and bags that are used to protect goods during transportation.
Effectively Occupy – Refers to the line-haul equipment space required to transport a shipment. Also referred to as effectively occupying, effective occupancy and effective cube.
Exclusive Use – With this service, the shipper often has full control over the freight being transported, and no other freight may be added to the trailer.
Expedite – Expedited services are necessary when a shipment must arrive at its destination quickly, not just within a certain time frame.
Final-Mile – Residential and commercial shipments that require value-added services, such as restricted appointment windows, consumer shipment notifications or enhanced delivery options.
Freeze Protection – A service agreed upon prior to shipping to protect goods that may be damaged in temperatures at 32 degrees Fahrenheit or lower.
Full Visible Capacity – Defined as the quantity of freight that fills equipment space to the point where no additional articles of the same type of freight can be loaded. The quantity is defined as freight which, in the manner loaded, utilizes a linear length of 24 feet or more and a linear width of five feet or more; or that exceeds 19,999 pounds.
Freight of All Kinds (FAK) – Specifies a variety of load types combined into one trailer or container as consolidated shipments.
Full–Container-Load (FCL) – Designates a container that is filled to capacity without room for additional goods.
Full-Truckload (FTL) – Also known as Truckload (TL), typically signifies that there is enough freight to fill a trailer.
Hazmat – Hazardous materials or substances that require extra precaution and consideration when transported.
Intermodal – Shipping that incorporates more than one mode of transportation, such as combining the use of trucks and trains to cover more ground in a timely manner.
Knocked Down (KD) – Disassembled goods that have been taken apart to save space and require assembly after delivery.
Less-Than-Container-Load (LCL) – Indicates that multiple shipments are combined into one container.
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL) – A shipment of freight in a quantity that typically does not fill a trailer.
Pallet – Most often made of wooden deck boards and offers support and protection for freight through top and bottom decks. Allows freight to be handled by a forklift without damaging the freight.
Skid – A single platform with legs or runners that provides foundational support to cargo during shipment. Allows freight to be handled by a forklift without damaging the freight.
Time Critical – Used when a shipment needs to reach a destination by a certain date or time of day.
Warehousing – The process of storing cargo or goods for any length of time before, during or after shipment.